Posted on: 1st May 2020

Research Design

Research design can be referred to as a framework of research methodology and techniques which have been selected by the researcher. It is a research design that enables the researcher to select such research methods that are most suitable for performing research on a particular subject. It is an overall Strategy which the researcher utilizes for integrating the different components of the study in a logical manner. It is very much important to ensure that the problem has been properly addressed. Research design is also considered an asset of research methodology in which the researcher utilizes the collection and analysis of information.


It is a research design that sets parameters for the Research project. The research design also provides criteria based on which you can do an evaluation of Research results and can easily draw a conclusion. The reliability and Validity of Research are completely dependent on the way the researcher collects, analyzes, and interpret information.  The selection of an appropriate research design is very much essential for writing a good research proposal.

Different Components of research design

The 8 crucial Components of Research design are:

  1. Accurate Purpose statement
  2. The strategy applies to Data collection and research.
  3. The methodology which the researcher applies to analyze the facts.
  4. Types of research method which researcher is using for performing research.
  5. Probable objections for Research
  6. Making arrangements for performing research on a particular topic.
  7. Timeline
  8. Measurement of Analysis

It is an appropriate research design that helps you in achieving success.

How to Create a Design for research?

The 5 steps which you are requiring to follow for creating a research design are:

Step 1: Set priorities and consider Practicalities

You should note that there is no specific research design for all problems. There are several designs that you can utilize for performing research to solve specific problems. The selection of research design is completely dependent on the priorities that you have set related to your study. One research design can be strong for researching one area and the same can be weak in other fields.

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A Qualitative Case study is consider as good for developing good understanding about specific topic. But it does not enable you to generalize the wider population.

Experiments perform in lab enable you to analyse cause and effects that have high internal validity. But it may not accurately indicate the way different things work in real world.

About scientific considerations, you are requiring to think practically about designing research. The following considerations which you are required to make are:

  • The time required for the collection of facts and writing research papers.
  • The technique to gain access to information
  • You need to think about the important research skills which you possess.

Note: In case you realize that the research design which you have select is not feasible about answering research questions then you need to refine research questions again.

Step 2: Determine the type of information you need

It is a step where you have an idea about the type of research you are require performing for solving particular research problems and answering research questions. The two important choices which you need to make at this step are:

Primary Vs secondary data

Primary Data Secondary Data
You need to determine whether you want to directly collect original information by applying Different techniques such as interviews, surveys, experiments, etc. Here, you need to decide whether to collect facts by analyzing the existing literature. The different sources which you can utilize for gathering secondary data are books, journals, magazine, etc.
Primary data helps you in making research original. You need to spend more time and effort.  You for gathering secondary data need to depend on participants. The collection of secondary data will help you in saving time. It also assists you in expanding the scope of your research.


Qualitative Vs Quantitative Information

Qualitative data Quantitative data
In case your purpose is to include a description of subjective experiences, interpret meaning, and developing understanding about concepts then you need to perform Qualitative Research. If your purpose is to measure different variables then you need to find frequencies and test hypotheses. You are also required to execute Quantitative Research.
Qualitative research design is more flexible as compared to other designs of research. It helps you in making adjustments in the research approach based on findings throughout the research procedure. The quantitative research design is more fixed. It means that researchers in advance determine different variables and research methods that they will use for performing different research activities.

Note: You can create such a research design that includes both primary and secondary data collection.

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Step 3: Deciding procedure of collecting information

At this step, you need to determine what type of information you want to collect for performing research on a specific topic.  At the time of creating a design of research you need to decide on the technique and sources from where you will accumulate facts. It is very much essential for you to properly define the criterion that you are going to use for selecting participants. You should also specify the procedure of recruiting as well as accessing participants.

Research methods:

Method Things to consider
Survey The number of respondents you will need to include in your study. You need to select the sampling technique which you will use.

It is very much important for you to determine the process you will utilize for distributing the survey.


You also need to decide the technique for designing the questionnaire.

Interview How you will choose participants?

When and Where you are going to organize an interview?

Experiments Where you will perform experiments. You are going to perform experiments in a laboratory or field.

The technique you will use for measuring and controlling variables?

How you will design the experiment?

Secondary data From where you are going to get sources for data collection

What specific criterion you will utilize for selecting a source for data collections.

Step 4: Determining techniques to analyze data

At this step of developing a design for research, you need to analyze information for answering the research question. It is a step where you need to decide the technique or research method for analyzing facts.

a) Quantitative Data Analysis

Analysation of images is considered a flexible procedure that includes subjective judgment. You need to emphasize the identification and categorization of key themes. In addition to this, you also need to interpret patterns and narratives.

At the time of developing research design you need to consider the approach you need to take an analysis of the data. The key themes and categories may only emerge after you have collected the information, but you are required to determine what you intend to achieve by performing data analysis.

For example, do you want to describe perceptions of participants and their experiences? Whether you want to analyze the meaning of their responses in social contexts. You need to think about whether your analysis concentrates on only what is said and the way it is said.

b) Qualitative Data Analysis

Step 5: Write a Research Proposal

The research design is considered a very crucial element of a research paper. It clearly defines what activities you intend to perform. It is very much essential for you to demonstrate that the research you are performing is feasible and capable of answering research questions.


From the above study, it has been concluded that designing an appropriate research design is very much essential for achieving success. Another fact which has been found is that research design is selected based on set priorities related to research.

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Author Bio:

Angela Wong

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