Types of Validity in Research
The validity and reliability of research methods in Quantitative research are very much essential. If you are having any confusion related to different types of validity then you can read our article.
Validity in research enables you to analyze the way a specific method measures something. If the case particular method or technique measures the thing is expected to measure and research results are closely linked to values of the real world then it is considered as highly valid.
Different forms of validity in research
The four different forms of validity in research are:
1. Construct validity
Construct validity helps in evaluating whether a measurement tool really indicates the thing which you intend to measure. Construct validity is very much essential for establishing the overall validity of the research method.
A construct is basically a concept which you can directly observe. But you can measure it by observing other related characteristics. You can categorize subjects on the basis of the following characteristics such as obesity, intelligence, social group, gender equality, job satisfaction, depression, etc.
Example: You can’t observe depression but you can measure it directly by observing the expression or behavior of a person. According to theory development as a result of the research in the field of psychological; you can measure depression on the basis of symptoms such as a decrease in confidence, the decline in energy level, etc.
Construct validity in research is about making sure that the technique utilizes for measurement matches the thing you intend to measure. In case the researcher prepares a questionnaire for diagnosing depression then he should have confidence that the questionnaire technique will really help him in measuring the construct of depression. It is very crucial for you as a researcher to make sure that you have carefully design indicators and measurements according to your knowledge. You should include relevant research questions for measuring knows symptoms of depression.
2. Content validity
It is a type of research validity which the researcher utilizes for assessing if a test is representative of different aspects of the construct. You should ensure that the content of the test, survey, or measurement method covers different relevant parts of subjects which it intends to measure. If in case any of the aspects miss then in such instance can have a significant influence on research methods or results.
Example: A teacher teaching maths to students has designed an Algebra test. It is very much important for the teacher to ensure that the algebra test covers all the content taught in the classroom. If in case any concept of Algebra is missed then there are high chances that results of tests could be inaccurate.
In other situations, if a teacher includes irrelevant questions in the test then the results of the test will not be considered as valid for measuring algebra knowledge of students.
3. Face validity
Face validity is a type of validity in research which mainly emphasizes on suitableness of content of a test. It is the same as content validity. But face validity is considered to be as more subjective and formal Assessment
Example: A researcher has developed a survey for measuring the consistency in the dietary habits of people. An investigator has review different items of the survey. The questionnaire form consists of all questions related to routine meals and snacks consumed by people every day. As the survey is clearly representing what test intends to measure so it is considered having high face validity.
Note: Face validity is considered as the weakest form of validity. It can prove to be useful when you are designing a method.
4. Criterion validity
It is a type of research validity which the researcher utilizes for measuring how closely research results of the test are parallel to the outcome of a different test which the researcher has performed.
The criterion is basically an external measurement of similar things. It is a test which is already considered as valid.
You for evaluating the criterion validity of research need to analyze the Correlation between the outcome of your measurements and the results of criterion measurement. In case there is a high level of correlation between two different results it means the test which you have designed is measuring what is expected to measure.
Example: A teacher in Arc University of Singapore has designed a test for judging the general knowledge of students. Tutor for testing the effectiveness of test design for measuring general knowledge of students has used existing traditional techniques which is considered as a valid measurement of General knowledge. After that researcher has made a comparison between the results of the two tests perform of the same sample of students.The outcome of both the test was similar it means high criterion validity.
Note: In case you are performing experimental research then you are required to consider internal and external validity which deals with experimental research design and generalisability of research results.
From the about article, it has been concluded that validity is very much important for generating meaningful results. Another thing which has been found from the above is that face validity is weak as compared to other research validity