Posted on: 24th Apr 2020

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is an approach that the researcher utilizes for collection, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data. Students pursuing Masters or undergraduate courses often face difficulty in performing quantitative Research.  In this article, our professionals are providing complete guidelines for Quantitative research.

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research: Definition

Quantitative research is a systematic investigation that includes the accumulation of numerical data. In such types of research, the investigator utilizes statistical and mathematical techniques for analyzing the data. It is also referred to as a research method that relies on measuring variables utilizing the numerical system.  Quantitative research is a structured technique for collecting and analyzing information.  The researcher mainly performs quantitative research in the field of social science. Research results produce by performing quantitative techniques are always highly reliable, logical, statistical, and unbiased.  The researcher utilizes a structured method and selects a large sample for the collection of information. It is data-oriented research.

Quantitative research: Example

The researcher is performing an investigation for identifying the number of customers who have got satisfaction from consuming specific products or services.  An investigator has performed a survey for the collection of Quantitative data. The different parameters that the researcher uses for measuring the customer’s satisfaction are clients opinions about the quality and pricing of goods, experience, etc.

The tools which the researcher will use for measuring customer satisfaction are matrix table, net promoter score, etc.  Net promoter score questions provide information in the form of numbers. Research performed for gathering information about customer satisfaction will help in determining the goodwill of organization.

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1.     Quantitative research methods: Types and examples

The 2 methods which you can use for performing quantitative research are:

1.1  Primary quantitative research methods

It is a type of research which researcher generally use for performing market research.  Important characteristics of the Primary quantitative research method are that the investigator mainly emphasizes on a collection of facts rather than relying on already available information.  Primary quantitative research method can be further categorized into 4 process flow these are

2.1.1   Techniques and Types of studies

A) Survey Research

It is considered to be as a most fundamental tool which investigator utilizes for performing research.  In survey research you need to ask questions related to topics from respondents. There are many techniques which you can utilize for accumulating quantitative data are online survey, online polls, Web intercept surveys, etc.  By performing a survey you can ask multiple survey questions and could easily collect information from participants. After collection of data you can easily analyze it for producing numerical outcomes.  You should perform such type of research by considering the target audience. Researchers can execute such types of research on multiple groups and analyze the data using a comparative analysis technique. When performing survey research you should choose participants using a random sampling technique.

You can perform surveys online, as it will help you in gathering a huge amount of information in less time.  There are 2 types of surveys these are:

1) Cross-sectional survey

It is considered as an observational survey in which the researcher performs surveys in a situation when the researcher wants to gather information from the target population. You can evaluate different variables at a point. In such types of surveys one variable remains constant. Researcher utilizes cross-sectional research when they intend to perform research for the healthcare sector, in the retail industry, etc. You can easily analyze and make comparisons between multiple samples by executing a Cross-sectional survey.

One of the biggest disadvantages of cross-sectional research is that by performing such type of studies you cannot establish a relationship between cause and effect.

2) Longitudinal survey

It is also a type of observational surveys which you can execute across various time durations. The researcher mainly performs longitudinal surveys for analyzing the changes in the behavior of respondents.  For example, if an investigator intends to know about the buying habit of people then they could perform longitudinal surveys.

The main characteristic of a longitudinal survey is that you can analyze different variables at different intervals of time. Such types of research are being executed by the researcher in the field of science, medicine. You can also perform such types of surveys for observing changes in market trends and measuring the level of satisfaction among customers.  Longitudinal surveys are mainly performed by the researcher for a subject that requires detailed inspections before concluding.

Tip:  when choosing survey time you need to consider the resources and type of data needed.

B)  Correlational research

The researcher performs correlational research for analyzing the relationship between two closely related variables of the study.  It is by conducting a Correlational study you can analyze the influence of one variable on others.  The researcher applies such a research method for providing Value to naturally occurring relationships.  You need two different groups for successfully performing quantitative research.  While performing quantitative research it is very much essential for you to establish a relationship between two variables without making assumptions about different aspects.

In simple words, you can utilize quantitative research for identifying the correlation ship between two variables which you can analyze using mathematical techniques.  You can perform correlational research for analyzing the relationship, pattern, and trends between different variables of the study.

Note: You should not make important decisions based on the results of correlational research.  As it is not compulsory that there are two variables in the study and both are interrelated.

Correlational research Questions Example

  • Relationship between depression and stress.
  • The equation between money and fame.

C) Causal Comparative Research

It is also recognized as quasi-experimental research.  The researcher performs casual comparative research for analyzing the cause and effect relationship between variables. Casual correlational research is performed for such types of studies in which one variable is dependent on others. In such types of studies the independent variable is established but it is not manipulated.  Observation is the technique that the researcher uses for analyzing the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable.  You need to reach to a conclusion very carefully by considering different factors.

Casual comparative research is not only limited to statistical analysis of two different variables in the study. But it is also extended to analyzing the way different variables get influenced under similar circumstances.  The researcher mainly utilizes statistics for presenting the results produce by performing Quantitative Research.

Causal Comparative Research questions examples

  • The effects of drugs on young people.
  • Influence of good education on students’ careers.

D) Experimental research

It is a type of research where the researcher mainly dependents on theories. The researcher mainly emphasizes on proving or disproving statement.  Experimental research is relevant to the field of natural science.  There can be several theories in experimental research. A theory is a statement that you can easily verify or refute. In this type of quantitative research, the investigator put all their efforts into analyzing whether the specific theory is valid or not. Investigator mainly utilizes Quantitative research methods in natural and social sciences. Different statements require being p[roved right or wrong.

  • Traditional research methods are more effective than modern techniques.
  • Systematic teaching schedules assist children who find it hard to cope with the course.

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2.1.2   Data collection in quantitative Research Methods

Data collection is a crucial step in quantitative research. The data collection can be categorized into two are Sampling methods and Data collections with the use of polls and surveys.

Step 1: Sampling methods

Probability and non- probability are 2 Methods that you can utilize for the collection of data in Quantitative research.

a) Probability sampling: The researcher uses a random sampling technique for selecting participants.  It is a technique that the researcher uses for providing every member in the population a chance to get select as participants in research.   The 4 main types of probability sampling are :

  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Systematic sampling.

b) Non Probability sampling: In such type of sampling technique an investigator utilizes their knowledge for creating samples. The 5 different types  of non-probability sampling are :

  • Convenience sampling
  • Consecutive sampling
  • Quota sampling
  • Snowball sampling
  • Judgemental sampling

Step 2: Utilising Surveys and Polls

After determining the sample you can distribute surveys or polls for the collection of data in Quantitative research.

Survey: It is a research method which researcher use if the collection of information from a predetermined group of people.  The different techniques which researcher can use for distributing surveys are :

  • E-mail
  • Buy respondents
  • Embed survey in a website
  • Social distribution
  • SMS survey

Polls:  It is a research technique which investigator mainly utilize for collection of feedback by including close-ended questions in the Questionnaire.  The two types of polls which researcher generally uses are exotic and election polls.  Both types of pools you can use for the accumulation of facts from the large sample sizes.

2.1.3. Methods of Data analysis in quantitative research

The third step in primary Quantitative research is Data analysis. After the collection of data, you need to analyze it using statistical techniques. It is very much essential for you to relate outcomes to research objectives. You should also establish the statistical relevance of research results. The researcher must consider different aspects of research that they have not to consider during the data collection procedure. After that you need to select a unique statistical analysis technique for analyzing Quantitative data. The number of techniques which you can use for analyzing Quantitative data is :

  • Swot analysis: Many of the companies use this statistical technique for evaluating their performance. They can also use Swot analysis for analyzing their strength, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities that can be helpful about the formulation of strategies.
  • Conjoint Analysis: It is a market analysis technique which marketer can utilize for analyzing how customers make a purchasing decision.
  • Cross-tabulation: It is a preliminary statistical market analysis method that establishes relationships, patterns, and trends within the diverse parameters of the research.
  • TURF Analysis: The full form is Unduplicated Reach and Frequency analysis. You can perform such type of analysis if you want to reach an effective communication source and want to measure the frequency of communication. Companies mainly use TURF analysis for developing an understanding of the potential of the target market.

2.2   Secondary quantitative research methods

The 5 famous secondary Quantitative research methods are:


  1. Data available on the internet: Due to the emergence of advanced technology such as the internet and mobile devices, it has become easy to perform Quantitative research. Now with the help of the internet you can easily gather information on a large scale. Information related to most of the research topics is present online.
  2. Government and nongovernment sources: You can also perform Secondary Quantitative research by using the government or non- government sources which deals in market research reports. By using the government and nongovernment sources you can gather highly reliable and detailed information. It is the tactic that will help in increasing the reliability and in detailed information. The use of government and nongovernment sources will help in increasing the validity of quantitative research.
  3. Public libraries: It is a method which the researcher uses for performing Quantitative Research. Books, Journal, magazines in Public libraries are also considered a reliable source of gathering information. Public libraries are recognized as the storehouse of valuable information.
  4. Educational institutions: Educational institutions conduct in-depth research on multiple topics, and hence, the reports that they publish are an important source of validation in quantitative research.
  5. Commercial information source: The great sources of gathering information are local newspapers, magazines, radio, journals, etc.  By using these sources you can accumulate first hand and detailed information related to different topics such as political agenda, economic development, market research, etc.

Quantitative research Characteristics

Unique characteristics of Quantitative research are:

  • Structured tools: The researcher mainly uses different research methods such as Questionnaires, Polls, and surveys for the collection of data in Quantitative research. By utilizing the structured research techniques you can collect in-depth and actionable data from respondents participating in the survey.
  • Sample size: Quantitative research is performed on a specific sample size which rep [resents the target market. You need to make the selection of an appropriate sampling technique for the selection of samples to accomplish research objectives.
  • Close-ended questions: Researchers are required to design close-ended questions based on research objectives. Designing of close-ended questions will help you in the collection of Quantitative data.
  • Prior studies: You need to study different factors relevant to your research topic before starting the collection of feedback from participants.
  • Generalization of results: You can easily generalize the results of such type of research.

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Advantages of Quantitative research

The different advantages of performing Quantitative research are:

  • Collection of reliable and accurate data: In Quantitative research, you need to collect, analyze numerical data.
  • Data collection quickly: Quantitative research is performed on a group of people who represents the population. In quantitative research, analyses of results are very much straightforward and it is less consuming.
  • Wide scope of data analysis: Quantitative research provides a wide scope of data collection.
  • Elimination of bias: It is a research which restricts researcher from influencing the data by giving personal comments.  The result obtain are numbers and it is fair in many situations.


It has been concluded from the above that quantitative research helps in generating accurate results. Another fact which has been found from above is that Quantitative research provides a wider scope of data analysis.

Author Bio:

Angela Wong

Hi Guys, Happy to help you in research paper writing. I am post graduate from SUSS and now involved in providing assistance to Singapore students for making research projects during masters and Phd scholars. You can consult me for marketing, management, finance, accounting or any kind of research paper writing query