Correlation research is a design that the researcher uses in studies for analyzing the relationship between different variables of the study. Masters or Ph.D. students when performing the correlational research faces issues. They don’t know when to perform correlational studies. In this article, our research paper writing team is providing complete guidelines about how to perform correlational research.
What is a correlational study?
Correlational research is a non- experimental research method which investigator generally utilizes for understanding the relationship between different variables. In such types of researchers, the researcher does not control variables. The main purpose of performing correlational research by the researcher is to identify whether there is:
- Positive correlation: It means that all the variables in the study change in the same directions. For instance, if age increases there is an increase in knowledge of a person.
- Negative correlation: Both the variables change in the opposite direction. For example: With the increase in age there is a decline in memory.
- Zero correlation: This means that no relationship exists between different variables of the study. For example there is no relationship between consumption of tea and height.
How Correlational Studies Are Used in Psychology?
1. If they intend to identify the relationship between two or more variables but researchers don’t have expectations related to the causal relationship between variables of the study.
Example 1: A researcher performs research in the psychological field for finding whether people belonging to the high-income group are vegetarian. According to this there is no relationship between income and being vegetarian. Although the investigator performs study for gaining knowledge about the variables which affect the dietary choice of people.
Example 2: Investigator executes a study for analyzing whether there s a relationship between several children and the voting decision of people. The researcher does not believe that children influence the voting choice of people. Still, the researcher performs a study for identifying the factors that influence the voting decision of people in the country.
2. If you believe that a causal relationship exists between two or more variables of the study. But you cannot perform experimental research as it might be unethical to manipulate a single variable.
Example 1: According to the hypothesis smoothing gives rise to major problems such as heart disease in younger people. You can’t perform research for identifying whether smoking more likely to give rise to heart diseases. But still, you can perform correlational study you should analyze the way students whose parents do smoking are more likely to have heart disease as compared to parents whose parents do not smoke.
Example 2: Researcher performs for testing those emissions of the greenhouse leads to global warming. In such type of research it is not possible to execute experiments and controlling global emissions. By performing the correlational research by performing analysis at a large scale you can collect a huge amount of information that can be beneficial about supporting the hypothesis.
How to do correlation research?
The survey, observation, archival data are some research methods that you can use for performing correlation research. Regarding academic research, you can integrate all the methods of data collection. The selection of appropriate technique and formulation of an effective plan is very much important for confirming the reliability and validity of research results.
It is considered as easiest way to perform an investigation to analyze the relationship between different variables of the study. The researcher also utilizes various techniques for performing research such as they perform online surveys using phone, e-mail. In the survey, the researcher asks people certain questions related to the topic and after that they statistically analyze the responses.
Example: A researcher is performing research for identifying the relationship between being vegetarian and Income. The researcher utilizes the questionnaire technique for gathering information about dietary choice. The researcher utilizes the sampling technique for selecting respondents. People belonging to different income brackets are selected as participants in research. After that, an investigator has performed statistical analysis for determining whether vegetarian people belong to high-income brackets.
It is field research, where investigator gathers information by observing things around them. Observation is the technique that you can use for collecting data about the behavior of people in a natural setting. In the context of correlation research, this method includes recording, counting, categorizing, and describing actions. It is a research method that includes bothqualitative and quantitative elements. You for identifying the correlation should emphasize the collection of Quantitative data, as it can be easily analyzed.
Example: A researcher is performing an investigation for analyzing the correlation between the participation of students in class and gender. The things on which the researcher is mainly concentrating on are frequency, duration of the contribution made by the student. After the collection of data, analysis of information is done for identifying whether girls speak more in class than boys.
(c) Archival data
Rather than collecting the fresh information you can rely on existing literature for the gathering of facts related to the topic.
Example: An investigator is facilitating a study for determining the relationship between working hours and mental health. An investigator for gathering the information about the subject can use health records, official national statistics. After that they can easily statistically analyze the information to conclude.
From the above article it has been concluded that the correlation research is appropriate for finding the relationship between different variables of the study. Another thing that has been found is that different types of research methods such as surveys, archival data, and observation can be utilized for data collection in correlational research.