Qualitative research refers to market research in which the researcher mainly focuses on the collection of facts related to the topic. Ph.D. Scholars often face issues in performing qualitative research. They have questions about which technique they should use for data collection and analysis. In this article, our professionals are providing you with complete guidelines related to qualitative research.
Qualitative research: Meaning
Qualitative research can be referred to as a market research method which emphasizes on gathering information through open-ended and conversational communication. Researcher generally performs such type of research for developing understanding about the humanistic approach. It enables the researcher to gather a huge amount of information about the topic. The main purpose of Qualitative research is to get reliable and complete answers for research questions. Researchers can perform Qualitative research for defining the complex processes. You can also use qualitative research for accumulating the information about the situation in the market.
Data Collection Methods in Qualitative Research
The researcher utilizes Qualitative research methods for gathering non –numerical facts related to the subject. By using the qualitative research design you can easily generate descriptive research results. It is a qualitative research which helps the researcher in developing in-depth knowledge about issue or subject. There are 5 types of Qualitative methods which you can apply for performing research
1. Face to face interview
Conducting in a detailed and structured interview is one of the techniques which the researcher utilizes for accumulating facts in Qualitative research. In such a type of research technique, you need to simply ask questions from participants about the topic. You can use the telephone or E-mail for approaching to participants and gathering information from them. Face to face interview as a data collection method in Qualitative research helps the investigator in ensuring the reliability and validity of the information. In face to face interview technique, the researcher can confirm the reliability and validity of information by observing or analyzing the facial expression, behavior, and body language of participants.
2, Focus group
It is the technique of data collection in Qualitative research where you can gather facts by including a little number of participants. Researcher generally uses focus group technique in qualitative technique for exploring the knowledge, opinions, or perceptions of people about a specific topic. You to apply such technique need to involve five to ten participants in research. While selecting the participants you must ensure that people whom you have select as participants know the respective field. It is the data collection technique that Sociologists generally use for accumulating the facts related to different fields such as education, communication studies, etc.
Tip: Making a selection of participants belonging to the same background and having similar beliefs can be helpful in the share of ideas.
3. Ethnographic research method
It is the qualitative technique of data collection which involves in-depth observations. In an ethnographic research method you need to study the participants in a real live environment or natural setting. The researcher generally uses an Ethnographic qualitative research method for the collection of information that has great relevance in the field of social science. In such types of qualitative studies researcher mainly emphasizes large cultural groups. Research generally applies an Ethnographic research method for analyzing the social interactions of users in a natural setting.
For example A researcher intends to perform an investigation for analyzing the lifestyle and eating habits of people belonging to the USA. Then the investigator can apply the ethnography research method and should perform Qualitative research for collecting information about the People of the USA.
4. Case study research
It is one of the famous methods in the qualitative research process. The case study method in Qualitative research includes careful observation of social units in a natural setting. It includes an in-depth study of specific situations. In simple words, the researcher collects information about specific subjects or issues by analyzing the case study. It is the technique that helps the researcher in addressing the main cause of the problem and helps them in finding effective solutions. In qualitative research, a case study is considered a simple technique that you can apply for data collection.
For example There is accompanying which is facing the issue related to the continuous decline in sales. In such a case researcher can analyze the case study of other organizations facing the same issue to find our an effective solution for the problem. In simple words case studies of other companies faced a similar issue in the past can be analyzed. It is the technique which will help the researcher in addressing the possible causes and solution for the problem.
5. Record keeping
This data collection method in qualitative research includes the use of already available information.
For example: Suppose the researcher is performing a researcher for identifying and gathering information about the number of people suffering from the Coronavirus. Then in such a case, instead of gathering information themselves they can make use of information recorded by hospital staff. It is the technique that will help the researcher in saving time and money.
Data analysis in Qualitative Research
Textual analysis is the technique which investigator generally utilizes for analyzing information. By utilizing this technique researcher can easily analyze images to conclude.
Another technique that you can utilize for analyzing facts in qualitative research is thematic analysis. It is the technique where the researcher needs to identify the pattern of responses provided by the participants during research. The themes are designed using the questions and responses of participants.
The 2 approaches which researcher mainly use for analyzing the qualitative data in qualitative research are:
A) Inductive approach:
An inductive approach is often used when a researcher has very little or no idea of the research phenomenon.
B) Deductive approach:
In Qualitative research, a deductive approach to data analysis is done based on a structure that the researcher already determines in advance. The researcher uses Research questions as a basis for analyzing information.
Characteristics of Qualitative research methods
The Characteristics of qualitative research are:
- In Qualitative research, you can easily accumulate facts about the phenomenon in a natural setting. The researcher collects information directly from participants.
- There are several methods such as Questionnaires, observations, and interviews which you can utilize for the collection of information.
- You can execute qualitative research for resolving complex issues.
- It is a quite communicative method.
It has been concluded from the above that qualitative research helps gain in-depth knowledge about the topic. Another fact which has been concluded from above is that many effective methods can be utilized for the collection and analysis of information.