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Urban Security and Resilience (PSS221) SUSS Assignment Sample Singapore

PSS221 Urban Security and Resilience provide a thorough overview of the wide range of security risks that threaten cities and urban areas. This course highlights natural disasters such as flooding, but also includes human-made climate change to cybercrime; communicable diseases come into play when discussing urban resilience in this context too! The term ‘urban resilience’ refers to how well an area can bounce back after experiencing some sort of disruption.

Urban Security and Resilience (PSS221) SUSS Assignment Sample Singapore

The elements in a safe city have an effect on everything from economic growth, quality-of-life for people living there as well as investments by others such as tourists or businesses working within these areas. To protect against these threats it’s important to plan carefully with all levels of government involved especially when coming up with measures so everyone can get what they need out of their experience is protected.

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Topics Covered In Urban Security and Resilience (PSS221) Assignment Sample SUSS Singapore

This section of the assignment sample highlights some areas that might be relevant to you. The following topics are discussed in this course:

  • Urban security
  • Personal safety
  • Resiliency management framework
  • Features of safe cities
  • Measurements and assessments
  • Digital security
  • Health security
  • Infrastructure security
  • Environmental security
  • Emerging security threats
  • Mutually supportive security measures and systems
  • Social connectedness

Learning Outcomes of Urban Security and Resilience Assignment SUSS Singapore

At the end of this course, Singaporean students will be able to learn about Urban Security and Resilience with satisfaction from the following learning outcomes:

Describe the factors that determine urban security (B2)

Urban security is the concept of safety in urbanized areas. Is generally presented as one among several aspects of city planning, including utility networks and capacity to deal with emergencies. Resilience is defined as the ability to withstand or rapidly recover from disruptions or disasters.

There are four factors that determine the security of urban communities, which are Urban Security and Resilience. These include Environmental Stressors, Social Disorder, Policing Strategies, and Emergency Preparedness. By focusing on these four factors it is easier to build sustainable long-term solutions to protect urban populations from disasters.

Environmental stressors include natural disasters such as flooding or earthquake; economic recessions; social disorder for example civil unrest or terrorism; and Policing strategies which may be externally led by regional governments or internally created through disenfranchisement with society leading to social revolution.

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Analyze the resiliency management framework (B4)

The resiliency management framework is composed of four roles that are critical in ensuring the success of the resilience programs to enhance an urban community. They are:

  1. Community stakeholders include all players in a community including government agencies, businesses, citizens’ groups, etc.
  2. Resilience providers are the people who have developed resiliency plans; they include infrastructure engineers, planners, and healthcare providers.
  3. Resilience stakeholders include those who may not necessarily be involved at the beginning of a resilience plan but can become involved as the project progresses and it becomes clear that there is a need for assistance such as police, utility companies, etc.
  4. Resilience investors are those who determine whether or not to invest in sustainability programs and projects within an urban community based on their personal safety and security interest as well as the investment returns

Identify the elements of a safe city (B2)

A safe city can be measured by a number of indicators. The World Health Organization developed the Safe Cities Index to measure a city’s resilience and ability to function following a disaster or disruption. This index measures 19 different indicators grouped into four categories:

  1. Capacity includes the availability of resources such as hospitals, information centers, housing, etc.
  2. Connectivity measures how well people are integrated into cities including roads, public transportation systems, communication networks, etc.
  3. Safety refers to both violence and crime within an urban community; this is broken down into two sub-categories:  Weber uses the term “subjective sense of security” while Erikson uses the “psychological dimension of safety.”
  4. Quality of Life includes factors such as environmental sustainability, education, and employment opportunities, housing, etc.

Features of safe cities will vary depending on what group you ask, i.e., city dwellers, tourists or visitors, etc.; however, there are some features that may be common among all groups. One of the most obvious features is the level of violence; however, many feel that there needs to be more than just a lack of violence and crime. For example, some would like to see improvements in infrastructure such as roads and walkways while others would like to see new cultural venues and activities.

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Measurements and assessments (B6)

There are many measurement tools used to determine if an urban community is secure or insecure such as:

  1. Crime assessment such as measuring reported crime rates for violent crimes, property theft, etc…this can be done on a city-wide level or by neighborhood areas within the city boundaries.
  2. Economic impact measurements – this includes loss of life through death or injuries but also social-economic impacts on tourism and business.
  3. Social impact measurements – this includes loss of social benefits i.e., economic, environmental, etc. This is oftentimes overlooked in measuring the success or failure of security programs or strategies.
  4. Assessments for Resiliency Management Framework (RMF) which measures whether resiliency plans are working as they were intended to be within an urban community; this will depend on each of the four roles of the RMF but can include leaders assessing their team’s progress toward goal achievement, evaluating challenges faced by stakeholders and any new problems that may have arisen over time, perceiving how well stakeholders’ participation describes them having achieved great results through active participation in achieving goals, etc.
  5. Physical infrastructure assessments – this includes a condition assessment of the urban community’s infrastructure such as roadways, drainage systems, electrical wiring, etc.
  6. Social and cultural assessments – this includes assessing elements such as social cost, loss of business revenue due to crime, lack of local support, etc.

Formulate plans to address security threats (B5)

Once an assessment is completed, planners can work on implementing plans to address identified security threats. These plans might include:

  1. Addressing infrastructure or service needs such as improving power grid or communication systems; should be done in coordination with other departments and agencies within the urban community’s government structure.
  2. Promoting infill development – this includes encouraging new construction and rehabilitation of existing structures including affordable housing options for residents displaced by storms, etc.; these measures provide a sense of safety and security for individuals and groups, while also providing cost-effective ways to utilize space within an urban environment.
  3. Improving social services such as health care programs; increased access to health care facilities will provide another layer of personal safety and security for residents.
  4. Improving security services such as police or fire department; increased access to these community service providers will ensure that individuals and groups have more options in the event of an emergency.
  5. Developing employment opportunities such as building new business centers, providing educational programs, etc.; is a cost-effective way to reduce crime levels in urban communities with high unemployment rates and lack of opportunity for adults and youth alike.
  6. Developing affordable housing in blighted areas – this is a crucial factor in ensuring resiliency within many urban communities, especially after natural disasters such as hurricanes, severe storms, flooding, wildfires, etc.; during these events, it becomes clear how vulnerable the infrastructure of low-income neighborhoods can be; however, these communities can also be some of the most resilient in urban areas because resources and funding are often available to help improve conditions for residents.

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Implement security management framework (B3)

Conducting assessments and addressing security threats are both important steps in ensuring the safety, health, and economic well-being of urban communities; however, each community must also implement a security management framework to oversee these efforts.

  1. Perform vulnerability assessments – this includes reviewing the results of an assessment conducted at Step B4 above; vulnerability assessments can help decision-makers identify priority areas for improving resiliency within their urban community; priority areas will depend on need but may include coastal properties that are vulnerable to flooding or roads that are easily closed due to severe weather events.
  2. Develop action plans – action plans should be tailored to address specific vulnerabilities identified during a vulnerability assessment; planners should create short-, mid-, and long-term goals within the action plan to ensure that goals are achievable, measurable, and time-bound.
  3. Implement action plans – this step includes everything from mobilizing the community to take on new initiatives to ensure full implementation of existing plans; planners can use communication tools such as public outreach campaigns or town hall meetings to mobilize residents in support of action plans; additionally, enlisting key stakeholders is crucial for the success of any plan.
  4. Monitor progress – tracking is an important part of implementing action plans; local governments should monitor short-, mid-, and long-term goals within an action plan to determine which activities are most effective at meeting their needs; examples might include collecting data related to building inspections conducted by fire departments or crime collected by law enforcement agencies (which, in many cases, can be found at the state and national level using tools such as the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program).

Examine security challenges (B4)

Throughout a community’s planning process, it will be important for planners to examine the security challenges that their urban community may face; these challenges can include vulnerabilities related to climate change and extreme weather events, patterns of criminal activity, barriers in accessing successful strategies used elsewhere, etc.; additionally, decision-makers should always consider how existing activities within an urban community impact resiliency.

Appraise security management techniques (B4)

Urban communities often face challenges that can be addressed through the implementation of effective management techniques; these might include working closely and collaboratively with planners and decision-makers at all levels (federal, state, and local), developing strategies for allocating limited resources to meet numerous objectives related to improving resiliency within an urban community, etc.

  1. Incorporate security management techniques – planners should establish well-defined parameters related to incorporating management techniques within their action plans; for example, if the goal of an action plan is to increase community engagement, planners may elect to incorporate a management technique known as “community-oriented policing” which involves police departments forming strong partnerships with residents in order to address complex challenges.
  2. Address obstacles – some communities may face barriers that prevent the implementation of security-related strategies due to socioeconomic factors, resource availability, etc.; however, these communities can work with decision-makers at all levels (federal, state, and local) in order to identify strategies that will help overcome any obstacles they might face.
  3. Evaluate and adjust – the overall goal of incorporating security management techniques is to ensure that an urban community’s action plan is implementing strategies that will improve resiliency; although some factors might help planners determine whether or not existing actions support the overall goals of the plan, it may be necessary to establish specific metrics for evaluating progress; examples might include assessing decreases in local property damage (due to extreme weather events) and/or increases in community engagement.

Security management techniques are overarching recommendations that help ensure a community’s security and resiliency; these techniques can include anything from developing land-use plans to involving law enforcement agencies in planning efforts because these recommendations have benefits for all types of neighborhoods, including those with high levels of crime or economic stress.

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