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OHSE 3620 Epidemiology and Environmental Health assignment sample UON Singapore

OHSE 3620 Epidemiology and Environmental Health assignment sample UON Singapore

In this assignment sample students will be learn the Epidemiology and Environmental. A study of the relationship between environment and human disease is an integral part of EOHS. Epidemiology provides concrete ways in which new knowledge can be gained, including a critical examination for environmentally hazardous materials that are found at work sites or other locations where people congregate and interact with one another on a regular basis.

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New knowledge is being sought in the world of Environmental Health and Safety. This assignment sample will explore how new information on this subject can be obtained, tools that are needed to critically evaluate EOHS literature, as well as what role environment may have had when it comes to human disease. The relationship between humans and environmental pollution will also be discussed with specific examples of pollutants or health concerns associated with them.

This course was designed to provide you with the opportunity to learn how standards and regulations governing EOHS can be applied as well as new information on a variety of topics.

The course aim at making you aware of the need to protect workers by helping them with safe practices, knowledge and skills that can be applied in the workplace. The assignment sample given below is related Epidemiology project topic under Environmental Health and Safety.

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TOA,TMA,GBA Assignment sample of Epidemiology and Environmental Health module UON Singapore

 At the end of this course, Singaporean students will be able to learn Epidemiology and Environmental Health module with the help of the following learning outcomes:

1.Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the environment and human health;

There is a clear relationship between the environment and human health expressed through two essential issues of our times – climate change, and new pandemic diseases. The basis of both are shared environmental conditions which demand global attention; they can only be overcome with concerted action on multiple fronts.

The enormity of the problem means that it cannot solely fall to national governments or local authorities to bring it under control. This poses a complicated challenge for international communities and an opportunity in disguise for businesses, companies, NGOs and nations who work together to find solutions that ensure everybody benefits from sustainable economic growth by working alongside one another.

Environmental degradation has profound consequences on human health at every stage of life from adult onset chronic illness to accidental injuries during a child’s formative years. Children are even less able to resist toxic chemicals that may be found in the environment than adults are. As a result, children suffer disproportionately from chronic health problems including asthma, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, diabetes, learning disabilities and cancer.

2.Understand the challenges of doing environmental epidemiologic studies and the basic types of study questions and matching study designs;

A major challenge of doing epidemiologic studies to evaluate the effects of environmental exposures on health is that it can be difficult to demonstrate statistically significant associations between the exposure and illness among persons studied.

The criteria for developing a reliable epidemiologic study center on:

  • Demonstration of statistical association, or causal relationships between risk factors (smoking) and outcomes (cancer);
  • Determining how frequent or rare a particular outcome is in the population; and
  • Deciding what the likely cause for an observed effect might be. All these elements are involved in a good hypothesis that will go from being speculative guesswork to scientific fact.

It’s not always easy to find an environmentally related health issue with strong evidence of a causal association. In the end, the best evidence for an environmental exposure or agent causing illness is based on large numbers of people that have been studied over time under controlled conditions, and in which the cause is documented.

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3.Understand the basic study design elements & their variations, their purpose and their strengths & weaknesses;

The most common design of epidemiologic study is observational, and these are usually contrasted with randomized controlled trials. Observational studies typically measure associations between risk factors (such as behavior or socio-economic status) and health outcomes (an illness).

The strength of these studies reflect strong case-control or cohort control measures such as the use of fixed knots in statistical analysis. Purpose of these designs are to investigate the relationship between health outcomes and risk factors or exposures.

Evidence from epidemiologic studies can be used as a basis for developing public policy and taking preventive action, but it really takes the results of intervention research to confirm cause and effect relationships.

For example, in clinical trials with drugs for treatment of cancer, interventions are tested on people who have received the drug while others may receive standard medications or no intervention at all.

4.Understand the basic methods of analysing, reporting and interpreting quantitative data from environmental epidemiological studies;

The objective of this method is to analyze the environmental risk factors associated with a given disease and the pathogenesis, in order to establish a correlation and communicate their findings. The first step is to map out associations between an environmental condition or exposure and the incidence of a health outcome by using multivariate statistical analysis.

If such associations are statistically significant, it may be inferred that there are possible causal links between those two variables, which could then propel research into elucidation of these mechanisms. It allows for better understanding of health risks at the population level rather than as individual case-studies.

Environmental epidemiology also differs from other medical disciplines because it does not follow patients over time but focuses on populations in different geographical locations or socioeconomically contrasting groups.

The main instruments and methods used in Environmental Epidemiology are:

1- Correlation studies;

2- Case control designs; and

3- Ecologic (or geographic) studies.

They have been successful as proof of concept but cannot provide understanding about the mechanisms that underlie the effects, nor do they always show definitive risk .

5.Apply knowledge of epidemiology and research principles to the appraisal of published environmental and occupational exposure and health outcome data;

It is important to note that the population, as well as environment epidemiology, can be hard for researchers to track. More often than not, studies are limited by their ability to take accurate measurements.

For example, in countries where people live without toilets and most bodies of water lack sanitation systems, conducting a study on rates of infection becomes complicated because there may be an influx of cases at certain times that go unreported due to the inability measure them or because they happen only sporadically and are missed altogether.

To prepare for a career in Environment epidemiology research or health care services in this field it is very beneficial have knowledge about industries such as environmental engineering when doling out clean drinking water; understanding what constitutes a habitable environment ; how the quality of the air effects people’s health in a home or workplace.

Environmental epidemiology is also connected to occupational health and safety, which addresses issues that affect people who work for organizations; it doesn’t just refer to injuries at the job site. An occupation might include law enforcement officers, pilots, nurses, doctors and many others whose jobs in certain environments may increase their risk of developing diseases due to contact with high levels of carcinogens or pollutants.

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6.Be familiar with causal reasoning and how to assess the strength of causality from study reports;

In epidemiology, causal reasoning attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships so that they can be examined and controlled for the prevention of illness and injury.

There are four “tools” epidemiologists use:

1) Identifying the possible causes (e.g., smoking or eating too much).

2) Observing how often a potential cause is associated with an effect.

3) Studying what happens in non-times when the cause does not occur.

4) Considering whether exposure to other factors would still result in an effect if there was no original factor at work.

To assess the strength of causality from study reports, look for these common qualities in an observational study–that evaluated the risk and then tracked it over time: Control groups, high follow-up rates and long periods of follow-up. Large populations with long trials duration are ideal.

Case-control studies were shown to overestimate relative risks by at least twofold (i.e., odds ratio had a 2x increase from a 1 in 3 change). This is partly due to risk factors that cannot be examined because samples come from different sources or diagnoses of the same diseases. Whether control subjects were randomly selected can also impact results, because this can help prevent selection bias.

7.Be familiar with the various special environmental exposure settings and associated health problems (eg, indoor and outdoor air, food, water, radiation.)

There are many important considerations in working with environmental exposures, such as factors that influence the concentration of an exposure at various locations, differences in disease susceptibility by different genetic and epigenetic makeups, access to health care services that may interact with the disease outcome.

In epidemiologic studies of environment and human health outcomes it is often difficult to establish causation or a sequence of events because natural environmental exposures occur simultaneously with quite literally 1000s of other variables that may affect the health outcome.

Considering this complexity, we can’t necessarily identify one causal factor without also considering the possibility that another confounding factor is responsible for any observed association between exposure and disease status.

For example, geographic location can be a major confounder if there are wide variations in the regional incidence of disease. If you are studying, say, the relationship between a rare cancer and exposure to a specific pesticide in your study area, there may be other pesticides used or aspects of the local environment that might affect rates of this kind of cancer.

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