|University||Botswana Accountancy College (BAC)|
|Subject||Learning and Academic Skills|
Read the passage on page 51 “Work as you learn” in the coursebook.
Paraphrase lines 20-34 using the steps covered
“How media changes the way we communicate”. Paraphrase lines 28-33 using the steps covered
Read the passage on page 54 “How media changes the way we communicate”. In 80 words, summarise the writer’s opinion of how media changes the way people communicate. Write down the number of words of your summary in the brackets below.
Work as you learn
1 The expansion of higher education systems in the last decades has entailed a great differentiation of the undergraduate population, with an increase in the number of students who undertook paid employment during their studies. It seems to suggest that a university student may decide to work not only to pay tuition fees or to reach financial
5 independence, but also because previous work experience is positively evaluated by prospective employers, representing an advantage in the job search process as a graduate. Several economic and sociological theories indirectly suggest that working during higher education could be a valuable experience entering the labor market as a graduate.
10 First of at, the labor market value of work experience is explicitly recognized by the micro human capital theory elaborated by Mincer (1958) and Becker (1962). According to this theory, both education and working experience enhance skits (human capital), which positively affect individual productivity on the job and subsequent wage earned. Thus, those who have accumulated working experience while studying may have
15 developed a higher number of competencies and therefore they are expected to be more productive on the job and to receive higher wages, at least at the beginning of their career. Since according to human capital theory most of the skills acquired at work are occupationally specific, It is likely that individuals who worked in a job related to their field of study are those who most benefit from their work experience.
20 Another stream of literature has recently advocated the importance of other types of competencies, the so-called non-cognitive skills, for individual labor market success (Heckman, Stixrud & Urzua, 2006). Firstly addressed by Bowles and Gintis (1976) in terms of achievement values, from time to time the concept of non-cognitive skills has been expanded to Include many personal traits weakly correlated with Intelligence,
such 25 as agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, leadership attitude, autonomy and ability to work with others. A growing number of studies found that non-cognitive skits have a positive impact on several occupational outcomes (Brunelle & SohTotter, 2011). In the current context, job experience during higher education might modify and develop the interaction with colleagues and the employer at the workplace,
which in turn 30 positively affect perseverance and conscientiousness, placing these traits In high regard with future employers. Furthermore, employers may anticipate that graduates with previous work experience have been socialized to work-related values (such as punctuality in everyday working activities, agreeableness, ability to cooperate with colleagues). favoring them in the hiring and wage determination processes.
35 In addition, the signaling and screening/filtering theories (Arrow, 1973; Spence. 1973: Stiglitz, 1975) offer a different explanation. According to these theories, hiring is an investment under uncertainty, as employers and candidates cannot share conceivable information on their reliability. Thus, employers will observe indices and signal to screen applicants, while candidates will signal thee innate abilities to be best rewarded.
In this 40 process, every alterable personal feature is costly to be acquired (in terms of effort, time, etc.) Is negatively correlated with individuals’ unknown productivity and becomes a signal of better innate ability. Work experience easily fits this requirement: among tertiary graduates, when academic performance is equal, having had previous.
How media changes the way we communicate
1 Tech and new media are fundamentally changing human interaction and we are only Duck ryj lbc tip of We 1usbc,y. Ovvvic fa ot alcaocU no Pinul Dud. in 2017. whIGI) have the ability to translate spoken language in real-time. As with all things technology and communication, there are mixed feelings about this. On the one hand, goodbye
5 language barriers and lost tourists! Hello, to off-the-beaten-path adventures and encounters with attractive foreigners the other hand, will future generations not learn another language at all? There is value in learning languages, and often the structure of a language reveals a piece of history or a new way of thinking. Will, we one day see married couples who can communicate only with earpieces?
10 We Ewe in a world where we can do almost anything with a few taps of a screen. Dozens of objects — phone, camera, flashlight, calendar, photo album, TV, ATM, shopping cart — have been reduced to a single, palm-sized device. It is truly magical. But in so many simple ways, we are forgetting whom we are communicating with, which is to say people and not screens.
15 II is now socially acceptable to talk to seven other people while in real-life conversation with one. It Is acceptable to be late — or bail completely— because you can let the person know by text. You can notify them, so it is okay. But texting allows us to bypass the guilt we would feel if we heard their voices. And we can apologize by text too but is it really an apology if we cannot see their face, and they cannot hear our voice? Is there empathy
20 in that exchange? We live in a new, uncharted world where we can take the easy road out. And we do. Similarly, at work, we now have a myriad of options, none of which require any face-to-face communication whatsoever — email, texting, slack, that. asana… the list goes on and on. And then we wonder why we are terrified to have difficult conversations that will
25 advance our career trajectories, and why the idea of giving a presentation can be paralyzing. Moreover, the miscommunication that can come when we slack rather than talk is overwhelming. There may be no better example than the rise of online dating. We live In a world where people do not need to take initiative; where cafes are places for staring at screens rather 30 than meeting the people around you.
There are relationships that exist almost entirely by text — we meet by text, communicate by text, and occasionally see each other in real life and then, the cruelest part of all, we break up by text. Long-term relationships have ended by text message; there is no closure for the parties involved. So often, we do not say what we feel because it is scary and we can text it instead.
35 which spares us the risk of seeing, hearing, and internalizing the other’s reaction. But then it could be a screenshot… so instead, we send smog and take no risk at all.
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