Question 1

Ethnic conflict has been a major issue in international relations. Despite the decrease of ethnic conflicts in the world, there are still many cases of them existing. For example, ethnic unrest in Myanmar cast a wide spotlight on Buddhist-Muslim tensions in Southeast Asia. Some scholars have argued that the problem does not lie with the Buddhists, Muslims or Christians; it is a problem between the government and religious minorities. Debate the political nature of ethnic conflicts in Southeast Asia. (25 marks)

Question 2

Good governance is inextricably interwoven with peace, democracy and development. The absence of effective governance and systemic corruption have been argued to be a strong predictor for terrorism to thrive. Appraise the notion that the best counter-terrorism strategy is to tackle corruption and bad governance. (25 marks)

Question 3

Recent terror attacks in Europe have awoken fresh concerns over what many see as a growing nexus of terrorism and immigration across the European continent. The European Union (EU) seems unwilling or unable to develop a coherent immigration control and enforcement strategy to deal with this dilemma. Examine the implications of immigration in Europe. (25 marks)

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Question 4

James Bergen (2013) argues that the relationship between transnational organised crime (TOC) and international security may appear to be an interesting sidebar from core defence-related concerns. The reality, however, highlights the centrality of crime – and transnational organised crime – to both security as a concern and defence and policing as activities that seek to combat it. The interaction between organised crime and organised political violence has been a clear trend for more than a decade. Somali piracy, the Afghan drug trade, precious minerals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the smuggling of arms to insurgent or opposition movements in Gaza, Libya and Syria are all examples showing the close proximity of crime to
‘classical’ international security dynamics and to military operations. Crime and security increasingly inhabit a shared space with which the spheres of both defence and policing interact.

James Bergeron (2013) “Transnational Organised Crime and International Security”, RUSI Journal, 158:2, 6-9.

TOC is coordinated across national borders, involving groups or networks of individuals working in more than one country to plan and execute illegal business ventures. TOC is a growing threat to both national and international security. With reference to relevant examples, discuss the challenges governments face in dealing with TOC and the possible strategies they can adopt. (25 marks)

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