This TMA consists of EIGHTEEN (18) questions. You must answer ALL of them.SECTION A: Overview of Basic Concepts (30 marks)
For each of the following questions, determine the truth of the statement in question. Then indicate your answer as TRUE or FALSE. (3 marks each)Question 1
'If Mahathir wins the election, then if Najib does not leave the country, he will be prosecuted' This is an argument. True or False?Question 2
'If both disjuncts in a disjunction are true, then the disjunction is false.' True or False?Question 3
'Every time I have gone on a holiday for the last 20 years, I have ended up losing some valuable or the other. So, I should buy travel insurance for my next holiday.' This is charitably read as an inductive argument. True or False?Question 4
'An unsound argument may have a true conclusion.' True or False?Question 5
‘A weak argument must have a false conclusion.’ True or False?Question 6
'The TPP will be a success only if the US is a member. It follows that if the US is a member, the TPP will be a success.' This is a valid argument. True or False?Question 7
'Emma is beautiful. And, Emma is rich. So, I should marry her.' This is an example of convergent reasoning. True or False?Question 8
'To be successful in life, one needs the right connections. And, Bob has the right connections. So, Bob will be successful in life.' This is an example of convergent reasoning. True or False?Question 9
‘Some philosophers drink whisky. So, there is at least one philosopher who drinks whisky.’ This is a valid argument. True or False?Question 10
‘No politicians are truthful. So, there is at least one untruthful politician.’ This is an invalid argument. True or False?SECTION B: Truth Conditions for Compound Statements (10 marks)
Now, state whether the following compound statements are true or false.
For Questions 11 – 15, assume that the following statements are true:
(i) Mary has a little lamb.
(ii) Jack went up the hill.
(iii) Humpty is sitting on a wall.
Now, state whether the following compound statements are true or false. (2 marks each)Question 11
Either Mary does not have a little lamb or Humpty is sitting on a wall. True or False?Question 12
Mary has a little lamb and Jack did not go up the hill. True or False?Question 13
Only if Jack did not go up the hill, then Humpty is sitting on a wall. True or False?Question 14
If Mary does not have a little lamb, then Jack went up the hill. True or False?Question 15
Either Jack did not go up the hill or, if Mary has a little lamb, then Humpty is sitting on a wall. True or False?SECTION C: Categorical Syllogism (20 marks)
The arguments in Questions 16 and 17 are examples of categorical syllogisms. For each syllogism, use Venn diagrams to state whether they are valid and explain why. (10 marks each)Question 16
P1: All sexual attraction is transient.
P2: All transient things are profane.
C: All sexual attraction is profane.Question 17
P1: No religious person is smart.
P2: All smart persons are happy.
C: No religious person is happy.SECTION D: Arrow Diagrams (40 marks) Question 18
Consider the following argument against ‘ethical cultural relativism’.
One school of thought about what makes an action right or wrong is ethical cultural relativism (ECR). ECR argues that moral right and wrong is always relative to a moral framework, which is unique to a culture and a time. And so, there can be no objective or absolute moral principles.
But this argument is flawed for, at least, two different reasons. Firstly, the conclusion of ECR (that, there can be no absolute moral principles) is, itself, an absolute moral principle. Thus, ECR contradicts itself and no good argument should do that (i.e., violate the principle of non-contradiction).
Secondly, ECR provides no guidance on what the moral framework should look like for a culture (or, country) that comprises several subcultures. Subcultures can have their own distinct moral frameworks. This makes it impossible for ECR to choose between these frameworks since ECR claims that no moral framework is superior to another.
Thus, since ethical cultural relativism is flawed, it should be abandoned as a theory of ethics.
a) Number the statements in the passage that you think are premises or intermediate conclusions or final conclusions of the argument. [When you do the numbering, you do not have to state the numbered statements verbatim; you might find it helpful to shorten the statement while capturing its import.] (10 marks)
b) Draw an arrow diagram that represents the argument in this passage. You will be graded on your ability to identify the premises, the intermediate and the final conclusion of the argument; and on your ability to illustrate and represent the structure of the argument. (30 marks)
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